Discover Romanesque: The time of Romanesque

Years 1201-1250

The decline of the Germanic empire started in the 13th century, torn between the Ghibelline supporters of the Hohenstaufen household and the Guelphs supporting the Ottonian dynasty. Yet, the dream of a restoration of the Empire was about to come true with Frederick II Hohenstaufen’s enlightened kingdom (1220-1250). Once he inherited the dominion over the whole southern Italy, he tried to annex it to that of Germany and central-northern Italy, entrusting it to his son and keeping the title of Emperor for himself. This was strongly opposed by the papacy that, feeling hemmed in, supported the Ottonian claims.

1204: Guidetto, Lombard sculptor and architect, signed and dated the open dwarf gallery of the cathedral of Lucca.

1239: Frederick II had his son Enzo married to Adelasia, widow of Ubaldo Visconti, ruler of  Torres and Gallura. One of Enzo’s daughters got married to the Pisan Ugolino della Gherardesca.

1241: upon Frederick II’s request, the Pisan fleet captured the prelates heading to Rome for the Council where the emperor’s excommunication was to be pronounced.



Personalities of the time